The impact of stable flies (stomoxys calcitrans l.) on small stock production in Bodibeng, Bothatogo and Sehithwa in the north west district, Botswana; a survey study.
John Cassius, Moreki
Moseki, Mogi Ivy
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Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is a globally recognized livestock pest of economic importance, which also attacks wild animals, pets and humans. These flies frequently feed on the forelegs of animals and can cause significant production losses and severe animal health and welfare concerns. This study investigated the impact of stable flies on small stock (sheep and goats) production and documented control measures adopted by farmers in Sehithwa, Bodibeng and Bothatogo villages in the North West District of Botswana. Simple Random Sampling was used to select 90 respondents in the study area. Data on demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, marital and educational status of the respondents), control measures against stable flies, time stable flies appeared, factors contributing to abundance of stable flies, and the role of government and private sector in the control of stable flies were collected and analysed using SAS. The Chi-square test of goodness of fit was used to show the unequal distribution of the frequencies of respondents among the categories for each variable. Results showed that wood smoking (53.33%) was the common control measure against stable flies followed by migration to unaffected areas (35.55%) and dipping (11.11%). Feeding activity of stable flies reached its peak in the evening (58.89%) followed by morning (31.11%), afternoon (6.67%) and the least was night (3.33%). Eighty-seven percent of respondents mentioned that stable fly contributed to poverty, starvation (16.67%) and loss of income (13.33%). It is concluded that stable flies affect livestock productivity and people’ livelihood; hence the need to adopt effective control measures. Control measures against these flies will be more effective when applied in the evening and morning.
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